• Although treatment of NPC with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation yields good response:
    • There are many complications:
      • That can adversely affect:
        • The quality of life of these patients
  • Complications of NPC treatment:
    • Xerostomia:
      • Is almost universal:
        • After conventional radiotherapy:
          • This leads to:
            • Dry mouth
            • Poor oral hygiene
            • Dental caries
    • Hearing impairment:
      • Is also frequently seen:
        • May be related to the combined effects of:
          • Direct radiation insult to the hearing apparatus
          • Persistent disturbance of Eustachian tube function
          • Chemotherapy-induced ototoxicity
    • Soft tissue fibrosis following radiotherapy:
      • May lead to:
        • Restriction of:
          • Neck movement or mouth opening:
            • Often accompanied by discomfort
    • Cranial nerve palsies:
      • Are usually due to:
        • Incomplete healing of damage caused by the tumor:
          • Although cranial nerves (especially CN IX, X, XI and XII):
            • Can also be damaged by radiation
    • Dysphagia:
      • Can be due to:
        • Cranial nerve palsies or
        • Pharyngeal stricture
    • Hormonal insufficiency:
      • Can develop due to:
        • Damage to:
          • The hypothalamic-pituitary axis or
          • End organs such as:
            • The thyroid gland
    • Carotid artery stenosis:
      • Can develop following neck irradiation:
        • And may result in cerebral ischaemia
    • The more serious sequelae are:
      • Damage of higher functions:
        • That lead to memory loss
        • Cognitive dysfunction, and
        • Neuropsychological dysfunction:
          • This can occur with or without radiological evidence:
            • Of temporal lobe necrosis

#Arrangoiz #Teacher #CancerSurgeon #HeadandNeckSurgeon #HeadandNeckCancer #SurgicalOncologist

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