Thyroid Tumors

Thyroid tumors account to 1% of all malignancies in developed countries and 0.2% of cancer deaths. They are the most common malignancies of the endocrine system and pose a significant challenge to pathologists, surgeons, and oncologists. Most of the carcinomas affect young and middle-aged adults and are indolent malignancies with a 10-year survival that exceeds 90%. There has been an increase in the incidence rate of these tumors worldwide which can be largely attributed to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and a change in diagnostic practices with an increasing number of smaller tumors being detected of late. Thyroid tumor pathology is an area replete with diagnostic challenges. Though there are typical morphological patterns described, overlaps with non-neoplastic entities pose diagnostic difficulties. Updates in this field include ancillary and research aiming at techniques that can further narrow down our diagnosis from the different “indeterminate/gray zone” lesions detected on screening.

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