Hyperthyroidism

  • Hyperthyroidism refers to thyrotoxicosis:
    • Caused by the overproduction of the thyroid hormones:
      • Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  • The most common type of thyrotoxicosis encountered in the United States and worldwide:
    • Is Graves’ disease
  • Toxic nodular goiter (TNG):
    • Is the second most common type of thyrotoxicosis
  • Goiter:
    • Is enlargement of the thyroid gland:
      • That is commonly encountered in clinical endocrine practice
    • It may be classified as:
      • Diffuse or
      • Nodular
        • May be either:
          • Non-toxic or
          • Toxic
    • Nodular goiter may include:
      • Multiple nodules:
        • Multi-nodular goiter (MNG)or
      • single nodule
    • Regardless of different possible mechanisms of development:
      • Diffuse thyroid enlargement eventually evolves into a nodular stage
  • TNG is a thyroid gland that contains:
    • Autonomously functioning thyroid nodule(s):
      • With resulting hyperthyroidism
    • Also called Plummer’s disease:
      • TNG was first described by Henry Plummer at Mayo Clinic in 1913
    • TNG is the second most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the Western world, after Graves disease:
      • In elderly individuals and in geographic areas of endemic iodine deficiency:
        • TNG is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism
  • Graves’ disease:
    • Is the most common type of thyrotoxicosis encountered in the industrialized world
    • Graves’, disease owes its name to an:
      •  Irish doctor, Robert James Graves who described the first case of goiter with exophthalmos in 1835
    • Patients with Graves’ disease usually have:
      • Diffuse, nontender, symmetric enlargement of the thyroid gland

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