Obesity and Thyroid Cancer

  • Obesity has repeatedly been cited as a possible etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer and has been postulated to be a possible origin of the increase incidence of this disease worldwide.
  • Undeniably, being overweight and obesity have been associated with an increased risk of developing numerous malignancies, including thyroid, breast, colorectal, kidney, and endometrial cancers.
  • In the United States from 1995 to 2015, one out of every six PTC and two thirds of PTC greater than 4 cm in size have been linked to being overweight or obesity, based on an analysis of data from three large national US databases.
  • Kitahara et al projected that the total relative risk for PTC was 1.26 for persons who are overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25 to 29 kg/m2) and 1.30 for those who are obese (BMI ≥ 30  kg/m2), compared with persons with normal-weight BMI (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2).
  • The risk in PTCs greater than 4 cm in size was nearly 3-fold higher (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.93, 95% CI 1.25-6.87) with overweight individuals, and more than 5-fold higher (HR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.24-13.1) in obese individuals compared with normal-weight individuals.
  • A study by Leitzmann et al, found that obese adults had a nearly 40% higher risk for developing thyroid cancer when compared with normal-weight individuals.
  • More research is needed to define the exact role of obesity in the development of thyroid cancer, particularly as the incidence of obesity continues to climb throughout the world. 
  • References:
    • Society, A.C., American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2018., A.C. Society, Editor. 2018: Atlanta, Ga.
    • Brindel, P., et al., Anthropometric factors in differentiated thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a case-control study.Cancer Causes Control, 2009. 20(5): p. 581-90.
    • Dal Maso, L., et al., A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors. Cancer Causes Control, 2000. 11(2): p. 137-44.
    • Kitahara CM, P.R., Sosa JA, Shiels MS, Impact of overweight and obesity on U.S. papillary thyroid cancer incidence trends (1995-2015). J Natl Cancer Inst, 2019.
    • Leitzmann, M.F., et al., Prospective study of body mass index, physical activity and thyroid cancer. Int J Cancer, 2010. 126(12): p. 2947-56.
    • Berghofer, A., et al., Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 2008. 8: p. 200.
    • Wang, Y. and M.A. Beydoun, The obesity epidemic in the United States–gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev, 2007. 29: p. 6-28.

#Arrangoiz #CancerSurgeon #ThyroidSurgeon #EndocrineSurgery #HeadandNeckSurgeon #CASO #CenterforAdvancedSurgicalOncology

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