👉Thyroid nodules are a major health problem worldwide.
👉The prevalence of palpable thyroid nodules in the general population is approximately 5% in women and 1% in men living in parts of the world with sufficient iodine.
👉High resolution neck and thyroid ultrasound can detect thyroid nodules in a signif- icant proportion of randomly selected individuals, with higher frequencies in women and the elderly population.
👉The importance of thyroid nodules lies in the need to rule out cancer. The majority of thyroid nodules are benign, clinically irrelevant, and can be safely managed with a good surveillance program.
👉The detection and diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer have evolved over the years with increased use of high resolution cervical and thyroid ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), molecular testing, and thyroglobulin as a serum tumor marker.
👉An algorithm that utilizes high resolution ultrasound and, when indicated, FNAB, and molecular testing for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, facilitates a personalized, risk-based protocol that promotes high-quality care and minimizes cost and unnecessary testing.